تهیه کننده: دکتر اشراقی
In terms of product diversification, because SMEs generally lack resources necessary to sustain a large-scale research and development (R&D) operation, they should adopt a ‘‘deep niche’’ strategy. That is, firms need to carve out well-defined niche markets by concentrating on a few specialized products and services, and also establish cooperative relations (e.g., strategic alliances) with major domestic and foreign companies (avoiding significant investment of resources and saving unnecessary R&D spending). Product development should represent the greatest strength or offer the greatest opportunities. Moreover, firms need to spend more of their management time developing new product markets and have a higher level of management support for entering new lines of activity. (Qian, 2002)
Economic shifts in the global economy toward more efficient production and a drive to create products that better meet customer needs has led to a decoupling of knowledge creation (R&D) and knowledge exploitation (production and commercialization) and to the modularization of products. In response, small firms have increased the diversity of business models they employ in their technology commercialization efforts. (Libaers, Hicks, & Porter, 2010)
Small-Medium serial innovators’ strategies of exploitation of their technological innovation: (Giuri & Luzzi, 2005)
SMTEs may find it advantageous to choose differentiation or innovator strategy rather than cost leadership strategy. The latter is achieved usually by increasing economies of scale and experience effects which are based on large-volume advantage (Porter, 1985). SMTEs can hardly compete in volume, as they may not have sufficient resources to expand swiftly production capacity. Moreover, with shallow pockets, SMTEs can hardly match large firms in promotion and price subsidization, which are important means to achieve large volume. Therefore, SMTEs have to innovate continuously and exploit first-mover advantages as entry barriers to protect their innovations. Innovator strategy offers important advantages for SMTEs. First, when a new product emerges in the market, sales volume is normally small and thus does not require large production capacity. Second, with organizational simplicity, SMTEs can shift to new technologies faster and at lower switching costs than large firms (Buckley and Mirza, 1997). Third, employees of smaller firms are more innovative than those of larger firms (Acs and Yeung, 1999). An innovator in a large company has very limited property right protection as the innovation generally belongs to the corporation rather than the employee who invents it. In contrast, employees in small firms can hold clear property rights and thus have every incentive to undertake radical innovations. (Qian & Li, 2003)
Giuri, P., & Luzzi, A. (2005). Commercialisation strategies of technology-based European SMEs: Market for technology vs. markets for products: LEM working paper series.
Libaers, D., Hicks, D., & Porter, A. L. (2010). A taxonomy of small firm technology commercialization. Industrial and Corporate Change, dtq039.
Qian, G. (2002). Multinationality, product diversification, and profitability of emerging US small-and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(6), 611-633.
Qian, G., & Li, L. (2003). Profitability of small‐and medium‐sized enterprises in high‐tech industries: the case of the biotechnology industry. Strategic Management Journal, 24(9), 881-887.